Gabriel Lipkowitz Computational Design & Fabrication Researcher

My name is Gabriel Lipkowitz. I am currently a PhD candidate at Stanford University in Mechanical Engineering advised by Eric Shaqfeh and Joseph DeSimone. I'm passionate about developing novel interactive computational design tools for applications in personal fabrication, engineering design, and augmented reality. You can read more about my work below.

In my free time, I love cycling 🚴, visiting art museums 🏛️, and seeking out good coffee ☕️. More than happy to chat about anything related to research, outside of research, or LGBTQ representation in academia 🏳️‍🌈!

Email: gel19 (at)


Highlighted Research

Injection continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects

Gabriel Lipkowitz, Tim Samuelsen, Kaiwen Hsiao, Brian Lee, Maria T. Dulay, Ian Coates, Harrison Lin, William Pan, Geoffrey Toth, Lee Tate, Eric S. G. Shaqfeh, Joseph M. DeSimone

In additive manufacturing, it is imperative to increase print speeds, use higher-viscosity resins, and print with multiple different resins simultaneously. To this end, we introduce a previously unexplored ultraviolet-based photopolymerization three-dimensional printing process. The method exploits a continuous liquid interface—the dead zone—mechanically fed with resin at elevated pressures through microfluidic channels dynamically created and integral to the growing part. Through this mass transport control, injection continuous liquid interface production, or iCLIP, can accelerate printing speeds to 5- to 10-fold over current methods such as CLIP, can use resins an order of magnitude more viscous than CLIP, and can readily pattern a single heterogeneous object with different resins in all Cartesian coordinates. We characterize the process parameters governing iCLIP and demonstrate use cases for rapidly printing carbon nanotube–filled composites, multimaterial features with length scales spanning several orders of magnitude, and lattices with tunable moduli and energy absorption. iCLIP enables rapid creation of 3D complex objects with high-viscosity composite resins and multiple materials simultaneously.

[📹 Video]


Computational Design

Lipkowitz, G., Shaqfeh, E. and Desimone., J. (2023) "Paraflow: A Computational Design Tool for Support-free Multimaterial 3D Printing" Extended Abstracts of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems.

Lipkowitz, G., Shaqfeh, E., & DeSimone, J. (2022) "Generative co-design for microfluidics-accelerated 3D printing" In Proceedings of the 7th Annual ACM Symposium on Computational Fabrication (pp. 1-3).

Lipkowitz, G., Samuelsen, T., Hsiao, K., Dulay, M. T., Coates, I., Pan, W., ... & DeSimone, J. M. (2022). "Digital Microfluidic Design for Injection Continuous Liquid Interface Production of 3D Objects" In 2022 International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium.

Computational Fabrication

Lipkowitz, G., Samuelsen, T., Hsiao, K., Lee, B., Dulay, M. T., Coates, I., ... & DeSimone, J. M. (2022). "Injection continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects" Science Advances, 8(39), eabq3917.

Lipkowitz, G., Shaqfeh, E.S.G. and DeSimone, J.M.D.(2023) "Fluidics-Informed Fabrication: A Novel Co-design for Additive Manufacturing Framework." International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland.

Hsiao, K., Lee, B. J., Samuelsen, T., Lipkowitz, G., Kronenfeld, J. M., Ilyn, D., ... & DeSimone, J. M. (2022). "Single-digit-micrometer-resolution continuous liquid interface production." Science Advances, 8(46).

Lee BJ, Hsiao K, Lipkowitz G, Samuelsen T, Tate L, DeSimone JM. (2022) "Characterization of a 30 µm pixel size CLIP-based 3D printer and its enhancement through dynamic printing optimization" Addit Manuf.

Lipkowitz, G. Hennum, K.S. Piva, E. and Schofield, E. (2021) “Numerical Modelling of moisture loss during controlled drying of marine archaeological wood” Forests 2021, 12(12), 1662


Winer, B.Y., Huang, T.S., Pludwinski, E., Wojcik, F. Lipkowitz, G. , Parekh, A., Cho, C., Shrirao, A., Muir, T., Novik, E., Ploss, A. (2017) “Long-term persistent hepatitis B virus infection in a scalable micro-well primary hepatocyte coculture system” Nature Communications, 8:125.

Magoro, T. Dandekar, A., Jennelle, L. Bajaj, R. Lipkowitz, G. Angelucci, A. Bessong, P. and Hahn, Y. (2019) “IL-1β/TNF-α/IL-6 inflammatory cytokines promote STAT1-dependent induction of CH25H in zika virus-infected human macrophages” J. Biol. Chem.

Winer, B.Y. Gaska, J. Lipkowitz, G. Bram, Y. Parekh, A. Parsons, L. Leach, R. Jindal, R. Cho, C. Shrirao, A. Novik, E. Schwartz, R. Ploss, A. (2019) “Transcriptomic analysis of acute and chronic HBV and HBV/HDV co-infections in self-assembling primary human hepatocyte co-cultures” Hepatology.

Winer, B.Y. Parekh, A. Heller, B. Lipkowitz, G. Guo, R. Cho, C. Shrirao, A. Pludwinski, E. Novik, E. Ploss, A. (2018) “Persistent Hepatitis B virus infection in self-assembling microscale primary hepatocyte co-culture” Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics.